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Why buy Microsoft licenses from Lenovo? It bridges on-premises environments with Azure, adding additional layers of security while helping you modernize your applications and infrastructure. Active Software Assurance is required to be eligible for License Mobility. AWS manages the licensing for you; all you need to do is pay for the instances you use.
 
 

 

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A smartphone is a portable computer device that combines mobile telephone and computing functions into one unit. They are distinguished from feature phones by their stronger hardware capabilities and extensive mobile operating systems , which facilitate wider software , internet including web browsing over mobile broadband , and multimedia functionality including music, video, cameras , and gaming , alongside core phone functions such as voice calls and text messaging.

Smartphones typically contain a number of metal—oxide—semiconductor MOS integrated circuit IC chips, include various sensors that can be leveraged by pre-included and third-party software such as a magnetometer , proximity sensors , barometer , gyroscope , accelerometer and more , and support wireless communications protocols such as Bluetooth , Wi-Fi , or satellite navigation.

Early smartphones were marketed primarily towards the enterprise market, attempting to bridge the functionality of standalone personal digital assistant PDA devices with support for cellular telephony , but were limited by their bulky form, short battery life , slow analog cellular networks , and the immaturity of wireless data services. These issues were eventually resolved with the exponential scaling and miniaturization of MOS transistors down to sub-micron levels Moore’s law , the improved lithium-ion battery , faster digital mobile data networks Edholm’s law , and more mature software platforms that allowed mobile device ecosystems to develop independently of data providers.

Following the rising popularity of the iPhone in the late s, the majority of smartphones have featured thin, slate-like form factors , with large, capacitive screens with support for multi-touch gestures rather than physical keyboards, and offer the ability for users to download or purchase additional applications from a centralized store , and use cloud storage and synchronization, virtual assistants , as well as mobile payment services.

Improved hardware and faster wireless communication due to standards such as LTE have bolstered the growth of the smartphone industry. In the third quarter of , one billion smartphones were in use worldwide.

The development of the smartphone was enabled by several key technological advances. The exponential scaling and miniaturization of MOSFETs MOS transistors down to sub-micron levels during the s—s as predicted by Moore’s law made it possible to build portable smart devices such as smartphones, [4] [5] [6] as well as enabling the transition from analog to faster digital wireless mobile networks leading to Edholm’s law.

In the early s, IBM engineer Frank Canova realised that chip-and-wireless technology was becoming small enough to use in handheld devices.

In addition to placing and receiving cellular calls , the touchscreen-equipped Simon could send and receive faxes and emails. It included an address book, calendar, appointment scheduler, calculator, world time clock, and notepad, as well as other visionary mobile applications such as maps, stock reports and news. These operating systems would later evolve into early mobile operating systems.

Most of the “smartphones” in this era were hybrid devices that combined these existing familiar PDA OSes with basic phone hardware. The results were devices that were bulkier than either dedicated mobile phones or PDAs, but allowed a limited amount of cellular Internet access. PDA and mobile phone manufacturers competed in reducing the size of devices.

The bulk of these smartphones combined with their high cost and expensive data plans, plus other drawbacks such as expansion limitations and decreased battery life compared to separate standalone devices, generally limited their popularity to ” early adopters ” and business users who needed portable connectivity.

The two components were attached by a hinge in what became known as a clamshell design , with the display above and a physical QWERTY keyboard below.

The PDA provided e-mail; calendar, address book, calculator and notebook applications; text-based Web browsing; and could send and receive faxes. When closed, the device could be used as a digital cellular telephone. In , Japanese wireless provider NTT DoCoMo launched i-mode , a new mobile internet platform which provided data transmission speeds up to 9.

Limited functionality, small screens and limited bandwidth allowed for phones to use the slower data speeds available. The rise of i-mode helped NTT DoCoMo accumulate an estimated 40 million subscribers by the end of , and ranked first in market capitalization in Japan and second globally.

As with other feature phones, additional software and services required partnerships and deals with providers. The degree of integration between phones and carriers, unique phone features, non-standardized platforms, and tailoring to Japanese culture made it difficult for Japanese manufacturers to export their phones, especially when demand was so high in Japan that the companies didn’t feel the need to look elsewhere for additional profits.

The rise of 3G technology in other markets and non-Japanese phones with powerful standardized smartphone operating systems , app stores , and advanced wireless network capabilities allowed non-Japanese phone manufacturers to finally break in to the Japanese market, gradually adopting Japanese phone features like emojis , mobile payments, NFC, etc. Phones that made effective use of any significant data connectivity were still rare outside Japan until the introduction of the Danger Hiptop in , which saw moderate success among U.

Later, in the mids, business users in the U. American users popularized the term “CrackBerry” in due to the BlackBerry’s addictive nature. Outside the U. Initially, Nokia’s Symbian smartphones were focused on business with the Eseries , [42] similar to Windows Mobile and BlackBerry devices at the time.

From onwards, Nokia started producing consumer-focused smartphones, popularized by the entertainment-focused Nseries. Until , Symbian was the world’s most widely used smartphone operating system. Some even had only a numeric keypad using T9 text input , like the Nokia Nseries and other models in the Nokia Eseries.

Resistive touchscreens with stylus -based interfaces could still be found on a few smartphones, like the Palm Treos , which had dropped their handwriting input after a few early models that were available in versions with Graffiti instead of a keyboard. The late s and early s saw a shift in smartphone interfaces away from devices with physical keyboards and keypads to ones with large finger-operated capacitive touchscreens.

In January , Apple Computer introduced the iPhone. The iPhone was notable as being the first device of its kind targeted at the mass market to abandon the use of a stylus, keyboard, or keypad typical of contemporary smartphones, instead using a large touchscreen for direct finger input as its main means of interaction. The iPhone’s operating system was also a shift away from previous ones that were adapted from PDAs and feature phones , to one powerful enough to avoid using a limited, stripped down web browser requiring pages specially formatted using technologies such as WML , cHTML , or XHTML that previous phones supported and instead run a version of Apple’s Safari browser that could easily render full websites [53] [54] [55] not specifically designed for phones.

Later Apple shipped a software update that gave the iPhone a built-in on-device App Store allowing direct wireless downloads of third-party software. The advantages of a design with software powerful enough to support advanced applications and a large capacitive touchscreen affected the development of another smartphone OS platform, Android , with a more BlackBerry-like prototype device scrapped in favor of a touchscreen device with a slide-out physical keyboard, as Google’s engineers thought at the time that a touchscreen could not completely replace a physical keyboard and buttons.

In , Asus started experimenting with a convertible docking system named PadFone , where the standalone handset can when necessary be inserted into a tablet -sized screen unit with integrated supportive battery and used as such. The S4 Zoom additionally has a rotary knob ring around the lens and a tripod mount.

While screen sizes have increased, manufacturers have attempted to make smartphones thinner at the expense of utility and sturdiness, since a thinner frame is more vulnerable to bending and has less space for components, namely battery capacity.

The iPhone and later touchscreen-only Android devices together popularized the slate form factor , based on a large capacitive touchscreen as the sole means of interaction, and led to the decline of earlier, keyboard- and keypad-focused platforms. Multiple vendors attempted to update or replace their existing smartphone platforms and devices to better-compete with Android and the iPhone; Palm unveiled a new platform known as webOS for its Palm Pre in late to replace Palm OS , which featured a focus on a task-based “card” metaphor and seamless synchronization and integration between various online services as opposed to the then-conventional concept of a smartphone needing a PC to serve as a “canonical, authoritative repository” for user data.

As part of a proposed divestment of its consumer business to focus on enterprise software, HP abruptly ended development of future webOS devices in August , and sold the rights to webOS to LG Electronics in , for use as a smart TV platform. Research in Motion introduced the vertical-sliding BlackBerry Torch and BlackBerry OS 6 in , which featured a redesigned user interface, support for gestures such as pinch-to-zoom, and a new web browser based on the same WebKit rendering engine used by the iPhone.

In , Microsoft unveiled a replacement for Windows Mobile known as Windows Phone , featuring a new touchscreen-centric user interface built around flat design and typography, a home screen with “live tiles” containing feeds of updates from apps, as well as integrated Microsoft Office apps. The announcement led to the abandonment of both Symbian, as well as MeeGo —a Linux-based mobile platform it was co-developing with Intel.

Many of these attempts to compete with Android and iPhone were short-lived. Over the course of the decade, the two platforms became a clear duopoly in smartphone sales and market share, with BlackBerry, Windows Phone, and “other” operating systems eventually stagnating to little or no measurable market share.

The following year, the company announced that it would also exit the hardware market to focus more on software and its enterprise middleware, [85] and began to license the BlackBerry brand and its Android distribution to third-party OEMs such as TCL for future devices. Prior to the completion of the sale to Microsoft, Nokia released a series of Android-derived smartphones for emerging markets known as Nokia X , which combined an Android-based platform with elements of Windows Phone and Nokia’s feature phone platform Asha , using Microsoft and Nokia services rather than Google.

By the mids, higher-end cell phones commonly had integrated digital cameras. In camera phones outsold stand-alone digital cameras, and in they outsold film and digital stand-alone cameras. Five billion camera phones were sold in five years, and by more than half of the installed base of all mobile phones were camera phones.

Sales of separate cameras peaked in Many early smartphones didn’t have cameras at all, and earlier models that had them had low performance and insufficient image and video quality that could not compete with budget pocket cameras and fulfill user’s needs. The decline in sales of stand-alone cameras accelerated due to the increasing use of smartphones with rapidly improving camera technology for casual photography, easier image manipulation , and abilities to directly share photos through the use of apps and web-based services.

In , digital camera sales were Contributing to the rise in popularity of smartphones being used over dedicated cameras for photography, smaller pocket cameras have difficulty producing bokeh in images, but nowadays, some smartphones have dual-lens cameras that reproduce the bokeh effect easily, and can even rearrange the level of bokeh after shooting.

This works by capturing multiple images with different focus settings, then combining the background of the main image with a macro focus shot.

In the Nokia N95 was notable as a smartphone that had a 5. By 5. The main camera of the Nokia N86 uniquely features a three-level aperture lens. The Altek Leo, a megapixel smartphone with 3x optical zoom lens and p HD video camera was released in late In , the same year the Nintendo 3DS was released, HTC unveiled the Evo 3D , a 3D phone with a dual five-megapixel rear camera setup for spatial imaging, among the earliest mobile phones with more than one rear camera.

The Samsung Galaxy S3 introduced the ability to capture photos using voice commands. The high resolution enables four times of lossless digital zoom at p and six times at p resolution, using image sensor cropping.

In the same year, Nokia introduced mobile optical image stabilization with the Lumia , enabling prolonged exposure times for low-light photography and smoothing out handheld video shake whose appearance would magnify over a larger display such as a monitor or television set , which would be detrimental to watching experience.

Starting in on the Xperia Z1 , Sony experimented with real-time augmented reality camera effects such as floating text, virtual plants, volcano, and a dinosaur walking in the scenery. In the same year, iOS 7 introduced the later widely implemented viewfinder intuition, where exposure value can be adjusted through vertical swiping, after focus and exposure has been set by tapping, and even while locked after holding down for a brief moment.

It is equipped with manual parameter settings, including for focus and exposure. The successor Samsung Galaxy K Zoom brought resolution and performance enhancements, but lacks the rotary knob and tripod mount to allow for a more smartphone-like shape with less protruding lens. While lacking optical zoom, its image sensor has a format of 1″, as used in high-end compact cameras such as the Lumix DMC-LX and Sony CyberShot DSC-RX series, with multiple times the surface size of a typical mobile camera image sensor, as well as support for light sensitivities of up to ISO , well beyond the typical mobile camera light sensitivity range.

As of , no successor has been released. In and , HTC experimentally traded in pixel count for pixel surface size on their One M7 and M8 , both with only four megapixels, marketed as UltraPixel , citing improved brightness and less noise in low light, though the more recent One M8 lacks optical image stabilization.

The One M8 additionally was one of the earliest smartphones to be equipped with a dual camera setup. Its software allows generating visual spacial effects such as 3D panning, weather effects, and focus adjustment “UFocus” , simulating the postphotographic selective focussing capability of images produced by a light-field camera.

Meanwhile, in , LG Mobile started experimenting with time-of-flight camera functionality, where a rear laser beam that measures distance accelerates autofocus. Phase-detection autofocus was increasingly adapted throughout the mids, allowing for quicker and more accurate focussing than contrast detection. In Apple introduced the iPhone 7 Plus , one of the phones to popularize a dual camera setup. The Nokia 9 PureView was released in featuring a penta-lens camera system.

With stronger getting chipsets to handle computing workload demands at higher pixel rates, mobile video resolution and framerate has caught up with dedicated consumer-grade cameras over years. In the same year, Apple brought video recording initially to the iPhone 3GS , at p, whereas the original iPhone and iPhone 3G lacked video recording entirely.

The early s brought a steep increase in mobile video resolution. However, the Samsung Galaxy S4 Zoom does support it. In , the Samsung Galaxy Note 3 introduced p 4K video recording at 30 frames per second , as well as p doubled to 60 frames per second for smoothness.

Other vendors adapted p recording in , including the optically stabilized LG G3. Apple first implemented it in late on the iPhone 6s and 6s Plus. Sufficient computing performance of chipsets and image sensor resolution and its reading speeds have enabled mobile p 8K filming in , introduced with the Samsung Galaxy S20 and Redmi K30 Pro , though some upper resolution levels were foregone skipped throughout development, including p 2.

Among mid-range smartphone series, the introduction of higher video resolutions was initially delayed by two to three years compared to flagship counterparts.

The proliferation of video resolutions beyond p has been postponed by several years. The mid-class Sony Xperia M5 supported p filming in , whereas Samsung’s mid-class series such as the Galaxy J and A series were strictly limited to p in resolution and 30 frames per second at any resolution for six years until around , whether and how much for technical reasons is unclear.

A lower video resolution setting may be desirable to extend recording time by reducing space storage and power consumption. The camera software of some sophisticated devices such as the LG V10 is equipped with separate controls for resolution, frame rate , and bit rate , within a technically supported range of pixel rate.

A distinction between different camera software is the method used to store high frame rate video footage, with more recent phones [a] retaining both the image sensor’s original output frame rate and audio, while earlier phones do not record audio and stretch the video so it can be played back slowly at default speed.

 
 

Microsoft offers free Windows Server licenses to VMware switchers | ZDNet – What advantages do you get from our course help online services?

 
 
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